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72                                 SHIPPING PRACTICE

The master may pledge either his own or his owner's
security for the purpose of raising money, and when this is
insufficient he may resort to the use of a bottomry bond 01
a respondentia bond. The pledging of cargo, however,
must not be undertaken unless the conditions are so severe
as to warrant such an action. The master as bailee of the
cargo has only the custody and safe carriage of the goods,
and he may never, unless in a time of danger, interfere with
the cargo owner's property, unless this is of direct benefit
to the cargo owner's interest in the adventure. The pledging
of cargo to ensure completion of the voyage would come
within cargo owner's interests.

When a master receives orders which may be regarded
as unlawful then he is not bound to act upon them.

All bills of lading are signed by or on behalf of the master,
and it is the duty of the master to see that goods are on
board before he signs the documents, and also that they
conform with the description in the bill of lading regarding
the "apparent good order and condition/' Should he sign
for goods which are not as per description then he is fully
responsible for any claims which may be made.

The correct time for signing bills of lading is when the
goods are received, but as this is a practical impossibility,
and the master's time is of greater value to the company,
the bills of lading are usually signed for on behalf of the
master by one of the company's representatives, and issued
from their offices. This, however, does not relieve the
master from responabilrty in this connection.

In a time of danger to the ship, the master has full
authority to act as agmt for both shipowner and cargo
owner, and may then oe considered to have implied
authority for all matters, including the disposal of cargo.
He may jettison goods and do such other acts which
may benefit the adventure as a whole without fear of being
held responsible, and may also, when cargo is damaged or in
tbe case of perishable cargo which has deteriorated, dispose
of the goods to the best of his ability on behalf of the
owner of the cargo. In such cases, he may be found to be